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REFERENCES IN THE TEXT
Forum Index » Risk Management (FRM-GARP)
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Elizabeth Frick (IV07473301)



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REFERENCES IN THE TEXT

The sources used are indicated both in the text itself and in the bibliography. The text uses a textual reference with the author's surname and the year of publication in brackets, comma and the page or pages used. The reference should appear immediately after the text.
(Mäkinen 2006, 34-35.)

Where the source is referred to in full, page numbers are not used. For the full text for example, when the source is referred to in general terms.
Usually there is a section in the work where the information can be found accurately. (Mäkinen 2006.)
If a source has two authors, both are mentioned in the textual reference. The authors' names are separated by an & sign. (Lumijärvi & Kela 2000, 5.)
If there are three or more authors, all the names are given in the textual reference the first time the reference is made. (Lumijärvi, Kiiskinen & Särkilahti 2000, 21-22.)

Later, the first author and the abbreviation etc. are indicated (Lumijärvi et al. 2000, 21-22).
If the information comes from several different sources, the references are placed within the same brackets and separated by a semicolon. (Kiuru 1997; Perälä & Perälä 2007.)

Different publications by the same author are distinguished by year and are listed in order of publication. If two works have appeared in the same year, they are separated by alphabetically. (Virtanen 1999, 2003.) or (Virtanen 2001a, 2001b.)
When the author's name is not known, the title of the publication and the year are used in the text,
in some cases also the name of the publishing society. The same is done for journal articles when the name of the author is not known. Also for laws and regulations, (University of Applied Sciences Act 9.5.2003/351.), (Business Research Advisory Board 2005.)


For electronic sources, such as websites and e-books, the method of referencing is the same as mentioned above. The source reference is therefore indicated by the author's name and year. More detailed information on the address of the source is only given in the bibliography. Sites are not indicated. Website: (Lahti 2005.), eBook: (Luopa, Karvonen & Jokela 2003.).By contacting us you will not need to waste time on writing and economics homework help.

If there is no author for the Internet page other than an e-mail address or a link to the page maintenance service organisation responsible for maintaining the webpage, they are marked as the author. (Library Association 2007.), (YLE 2006.)
The citation must indicate which part of the text is based on the source. If the whole paragraph the entire text is quoted, the text reference should be placed in brackets at the end of the paragraph after the full stop, as if it were an independent sentence. A full stop is also inserted in the brackets.
xxxxxxx. (Taskinen 2006, 120-121.)

If the reference concerns only one sentence, the reference is included inside that sentence.
The full stop is then placed outside the brackets.
xxxxxxxxxxxxxx (Taskinen 2006, 120-121).
A direct quotation from several sentences is separated from the rest of the text by a 2,3 cm margin on the left-hand side of the text.
and line spacing
Quotation marks are not required. The study's own interviews. In order to shorten the time, you can turn to the experts. We provide 100% original essay writing services to undergraduate and graduate students across the country.You can go to the company website to testimonials essayassistant.

is always indicated by indentation and line spacing 1, even if the interviewee's direct quotation is a single quotation.

Peteroposts (IV07488101)



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Merci pour l'information
 
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